The twenty agreements were signed in Marrakesh in April 1994 – the Marrakesh Agreement. . and clarifications negotiated during the Uruguay Round (referred to as “agreements”) as well as a dozen other multilateral agreements on trade in goods. Gatt 1994 became an integral part of the Agreement establishing the WTO. Other key elements are the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), which has attempted to monitor and. Reduction of tariffs and new rules to control the spread of non-tariff barriers and voluntary export restrictions. 102 countries participated in the round. Trade concessions worth $19 billion have been made. In July 1986, the Office of the Director General prepared a series of updated documents in Geneva to pave the way for progress.  As described below, the Round was launched in September 1986 in Punta del Este, Uruguay, followed by negotiations in Geneva, Brussels, Washington, D.C and Tokyo. The agenda originally included in the Uruguay Round agreements has been completed and amended. A number of items are now part of the Doha agenda, some of which have been updated. The Uruguay Round negotiated the most ambitious trade liberalization agreements in GATT history.
The worldly trade agreement adopted at the end of the round reduced tariffs on industrial goods by an average of 40 percent, reduced agricultural subsidies, and contained revolutionary new agreements on trade in services. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is a legally valid agreement between many countries, the overall objective of which was to promote international trade through the removal or elimination of barriers to trade such as tariffs or quotas. According to its preamble, its objective was “to substantially reduce tariffs and other barriers to trade and to eliminate reciprocal and mutually beneficial preferences”. What is at issue in this chapter This chapter presents the context of the Convention on Agriculture. It gives a brief overview of the history of GATT and gives its origin in the 1947 Agreement, the reasons for the possible extension of the subject matter of the negotiations to agricultural trade, as well as the countries and themes that dominated the discussions prior to the agreement. Objectives of this chapter To provide a brief overview of the history of GATT and to provide some general information for subsequent chapters on the content of the Convention on Agriculture. Highlight the context of agricultural trade before the Uruguay Round negotiations. List of themes and countries that dominated the negotiations. What you will know about the principles and objectives on which gatt was based. Gatt has a considerable history that agriculture has largely excluded. Problems related to world markets before the agreement, which led to the integration of agriculture into the negotiations. Who were the main actors in the negotiation, their concerns and interests.
1.1 Background to the Uruguay Round negotiations The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was created in Geneva in 1947 to create a framework that governs international trade and stimulates international trade. The World Bank and the IMF, established at Bretton Woods in 1944 to deal with international finance issues, have been joint initiatives. In addition to the latter two organizations, policymakers also planned the creation of an International Trade Organization (ITO) to monitor international trade and impose a framework of rules. . . .